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Hunger Games Read Online Epub Validator


Hunger Games Read Online Epub Validator >> https://urlin.us/2twOdA





Abstract:In this study, a new meta-heuristic optimization method inspired by the behavioral choices of animals and hunger-driven activities, called hunger games search (HGS), is suggested to solve and formulate the single- and multi-objective optimal power flow problem in power systems. The main aim of this study is to optimize the objective functions, which are total fuel cost of generator, active power losses in transmission lines, total emission issued by fossil-fueled thermal units, voltage deviation at PQ bus, and voltage stability index. The proposed HGS approach is optimal and easy, avoids stagnation in local optima, and can solve multi-constrained objectives. Various single-and multi-objective (conflicting) functions were proposed simultaneously to solve OPF problems. The proposed algorithm (HGS) was developed to solve the multi-objective function, called the multi-objective hunger game search (MOHGS), by incorporating the proposed optimization (HGS) with Pareto optimization. The fuzzy membership theory is the function responsible to extract the best compromise solution from non-dominated solutions. The crowding distance is the strategies carried out to determine and ordering the Pareto non-dominated set. Two standard tests (IEEE 30 bus and IEEE 57 bus systems) are the power systems that were applied to investigate the performance of the proposed approaches (HGS and MOHGS) for solving single and multiple objective functions with 25 studied cases using MATLAB software. The numerical results obtained by the proposed approaches (HGS and MOHGS) were compared to other optimization algorithms in the literature. The numerical results confirmed the efficiency and superiority of the proposed approaches by achieving an optimal solution and giving the faster convergence characteristics in single objective functions and extracting the best compromise solution and well-distributed Pareto front solutions in multi-objective functions.Keywords: multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF); hunger games search (HGS); multi-objective hunger games search (MOHGS); Pareto concept; fuzzy set theory; fuel cost; active power losses; emission; voltage deviation; voltage stability index


As already highlighted above, diet quality is a critical link between food security and nutrition outcomes that needs to be present as part of all efforts to achieve the hunger, food security and nutrition targets of SDG 2. Meeting these targets will only be possible if we ensure that people have enough food to eat, and that what they are eating is nutritious. However, one of the biggest challenges to achieving this is the current cost and affordability of healthy diets, which is the focus of Part 2 of this report this year.


The increasing frequency of extreme weather events, altered environmental conditions, and the associated spread of pests and diseases over the last 15 years are factors that contribute to vicious circles of poverty and hunger, particularly when exacerbated by fragile institutions, conflicts, violence and the widespread displacement of populations.4,5,6,7 The number of displaced people in the world in 2018 was about 70 percent higher than in 2010, reaching some 70.8 million, mostly hosted by developing countries.2


This report presents projections (Figure 1) of what the extent of hunger in the world may be in 2030, if trends of the last decade, observed until late last year, were to continue (see Box 2 and Annexes 1B and 2). At the time of going to press (June 2020), the COVID-19 pandemic was spreading across the globe, clearly posing a serious threat to food security. There is no doubt the pandemic will expose more people to food insecurity and accelerate the projected increase in the number of hungry people, unless immediate actions are taken. As the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will persist is not known, both in terms of scope and severity, the projections provided here must be seen as preliminary.


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